"Off Twitter for a while," he wrote.
The tweet had garnered more than 357,000 likes and 17,000 retweets by 2:30 p.m. ET.
Last June he said he'd step away -- tweeting the exact same message -- but logged on again just days later.
On Monday, Musk joined the social audio app Clubhouse to great fanfare.
Musk's tweets also have had an impact on the stock market, causing Gamestop shares to rise by 157% on Jan. 27 after tweeting "Gamestonk," and bumping shares of online marketplace Etsy up 3.5% on Jan. 26 after tweeting "I kinda love Etsy." He also helped bitcoin surge as much as 15% on Friday after he added "#bitcoin" to his Twitter bio.
Musk has also used the social media platform to announce the rollout of several other projects, including the construction of Tesla's Gigafactory in Berlin.