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With Democrats boycotting the committee meeting over the Supreme Court nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett, the subpoenas were approved by all 12 committee Republicans.
Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., introduced the motion because of the companies' alleged censorship of a New York Post story about emails allegedly found on Hunter Biden's laptop and other election-related content moderation policies.
Dorsey, Zuckerberg and Google CEO Sundar Pichai will testify on their policies regarding bias, disinformation and privacy before that committee on Oct. 28.
Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, a member of both the commerce and judiciary committees, has called the companies "the robber barons of the twenty-first century."
Twitter and Facebook declined to comment on the vote.
FOX Business' Audrey Conklin contributed to this report.