The legislation was approved 19 to 16.
The package includes $1,400 direct payments to American households, aid for state and local governments, in addition to funding for small businesses and vaccine distribution efforts.
Democrats are hoping to pass relief before expanded unemployment insurance benefits expire on March 14. They intend to use reconciliation, which means they theoretically will not need any Republican support.
The legislation could face a tough challenge in the Senate, where it is unclear if some key lawmakers, including Sen. Joe Manchin, D-W.Va., are fully on board with the plan.
It has also yet to be determined whether all of the measures, including increasing the federal minimum wage to $15 per hour, are able to be pushed through via budget reconciliation, which is typically reserved for measures that change spending or revenues.