Cyberattack wasn't intended to extort money, rather aimed to cripple businesses
This article is being republished as part of our daily reproduction of WSJ.com articles that also appeared in the US print edition of The Wall Street Journal (June 30, 2017).
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This week's global virus outbreak that grounded airplanes in Ukraine, slowed FedEx courier deliveries in Europe and disrupted Maersk container ships around the world was devised simply to damage businesses, not earn profits for the hackers behind it, security experts now believe.
The latest attack was similar, yet more sophisticated than last month's WannaCry virus, which also appeared as though designed to extort money, security experts said.
The likelihood that a damaging attack on the Ukranian computer system was disguised as ransomware is a disturbing revelation for the world's corporate executives whose companies are at risk of being collateral damage from such targeted attacks.
The software was coded to look like a variant of a known form of ransomware -- malicious software called Petya that makes files unreadable until the victim makes a $300 payment. But that appears to have been a ruse: The virus's underlying software was different from Petya and made it technically impossible for files to be recovered, even by the attackers, researchers say.
"The attackers have no actual means of decrypting the files," said Juan Andrés Guerrero-Saade, a security researcher with antivirus vendor Kaspersky Lab ZAO. "It's masquerading as a ransomware."
The disguise slowed down the international response to the outbreak by leading cyber-responders down investigative dead-ends, said Lesley Carhart, a computer-security researcher who studied the latest attack.
The Petya clone attack began Tuesday after hackers broke into the servers belonging to Intellekt Servis, a little-known Ukranian company that makes the country's most popular tax software, security researchers say. The hackers then modified the M.E. Docs software to include the malicious virus, which rapidly spread to other corporate networks when companies installed a software update.
Intellekt Servis, said there was no evidence supporting the idea that its clients downloaded a corrupted update of its accounting program. Still, the company said it was cooperating with police and IT experts to determine how the virus spread.
The virus employed remarkably effective password-stealing software along with attack code, allegedly stolen from the National Security Agency, to worm through corporate networks. The alleged NSA code "may have been used to compromise a few systems," but the password-stealing tools led to the bulk of the computer infections, said Charles Carmakal, a vice president at FireEye Inc.
An NSA spokeswoman didn't respond to an email seeking comment.
M.E. Docs is the most popular software used to electronically file tax forms with the Ukranian government, and it is widely used by international companies doing business in Ukraine, said Hennadiy Voytsitskyi, a partner with the law firm Baker & McKenzie LLP.
After an M.E. Docs software update, a computer at Baker McKenzie's Kiev office was seized with the ransomware Tuesday, demanding the $300 payment in the digital currency bitcoin, Mr. Voytsitskyi said. But the law firm didn't pay, he said. The infected computer was isolated from the rest of the company and the virus didn't spread, he said.
Other companies weren't so lucky. The world's largest containership operator, A.P. Moeller-Maersk A/S, was forced to shut down ports in the U.S., Europe and India after experiencing widespread computer outages at its APM Terminals unit. Delivery giant FedEx Corp. said a courier division in Europe was crippled by the virus. Other victims included French construction giant Saint Gobain and in the U.S., pharmaceutical giant Merck & Co. and law firm DLA Piper.
Kaspersky, the Russian antivirus company, said that half of the companies targeted by the infection were industrial companies in industries such as oil and gas, transportation and electricity production.
Within some of these companies, the virus spread like wildfire.
On Tuesday, the fake ransomware infected 5,000 computers within a matter of minutes at a large U.S. manufacturing company, said David Kennedy, chief executive at security consultancy TrustedSec LLC. When the company, which Mr. Kennedy declined to identify, contacted TrustedSec for help on Tuesday, investigators initially believed the company had been hit by ransomware spread via email.
"When this company called, their entire infrastructure was shut down. Gone," Mr. Kennedy said. Two days later the company was "at about 50% capacity," he said.
Companies were already on edge after the WannaCry attack, which began on May 12 and ultimately infected more than 200,000 computers around the world by exploiting a bug in the Microsoft Windows operating system. Security researchers have linked that attack to North Korea.
Mr. Kennedy believes the newest attack, with its sophistication, subterfuge, and its targeting of Ukranian systems, shows "signs of nation-state hands in it."
The attack has netted its authors just under four bitcoins in ransom payments to date, or roughly $10,000. Security experts say this is a small amount for such a technically advanced attack.
The lawyer, Mr. Voytsitskyi, said he continues to feel the effects of the outbreak even though his firm evaded a massive disruption. Because some financial systems in Ukraine remained offline Thursday, he was unable to pay for his lunch because the restaurant's credit-card machine remained offline. "It's not just a nuisance," he said. "It's more than that."
--David Gauthier-Villars contributed to this article.
Write to Robert McMillan at Robert.Mcmillan@wsj.com
(END) Dow Jones Newswires
June 30, 2017 02:47 ET (06:47 GMT)