Penetration Pricing: How Costco and Kroger Co Dominate Grocery Retail

By Demitrios

"We lose money on every sale, but we'll make it up on volume."

If you ran a business, you'd rather be in technology than food retail, right? Who wouldn't prefer Apple's40% gross profit margin over Costco's 13%? And as the above joke points out, mass-market retailing can involve tiny or even negative profit margins that never grow into sustainable earnings.

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However, a few companies have succeeded at building highly profitable businesses on razor-thin margins. And they did it with the help of a powerful strategy called penetration pricing.

What is penetration pricing?Penetration pricing means setting your prices lower than competitors' in order to capture market share. The approach can work in any industry, but it is ideal in markets where the products aren't differentiated. For example, customers can buy many of the same groceries from Wal-Mart that they can find at a Target or Kroger store. That ubiquity makes grocery shoppers sensitive to prices, so the company that provides the best value has a huge competitive advantage.

Source: Kroger.

The penetration strategy contrasts with "skimming" pricing, which involves setting a high price that maximizes profit and applies to a smaller portion of the market. Companies use this approach when they have a highly differentiated product that customers are willing to pay up to own.

Apple's iPhone is a great example. It carries a higher selling price than that of many other smartphones, but enough shoppers pay the premium because they value the innovation and design characteristics of the Apple devices over competing brands.

Penetration pricing at workReturning to our grocery example, you can see penetration pricing at work right now within the organic and natural foods sector. That's a desirable market for any grocery retailer since it is expanding at a double digit pace compared to the broader industry's 3% growth.

While some companies are taking advantage of that popularity to boost their profit margins, price leaders Costcoand Kroger are busy moving in the opposite direction: They are aggressively cutting prices on organic food. Here's how a Kroger executive described the grocer's pricing strategy with regard to these in-demand products.

And this is a Costco executive talking about the same category in a recent conference call with Wall Street analysts:

Why penetration pricing worksPenetration pricing only works to the extent that you can run your business at a lower cost than your rivals can. Otherwise, your lower prices will just drive you into operating losses.

Kroger avoids that fate mainly through economies of scale -- at over $100 billion in annual revenue, it is one of the nation's largest retailers. Thus, it can negotiate uniquely favorable deals with food suppliers. Kroger also runs its own manufacturing plants, which helps keep costs down.

Inside a Costco store. Source: The Motley Fool.

Meanwhile, Costco's entire business model is organized around pushing costs lower. The warehouse retailer uses several strategies to do this, including selling a narrow range of products, operating for fewer hours, and applying membership fees toward price cuts.

Both grocery retailers' pricing strategies are paying off in spades. Kroger just closed the books on its tenth straight year of market share gains. And Costco's membership renewal rate rose by a full percentage point in 2014 to an incredible 91%. Kroger and Costco both set fresh earnings records last year as well, which demonstrates that low profit margins can still power strong returns for investors.

The article Penetration Pricing: How Costco and Kroger Co Dominate Grocery Retail originally appeared on

Demitrios Kalogeropoulos owns shares of Apple and Costco Wholesale. The Motley Fool recommends Apple and Costco Wholesale. The Motley Fool owns shares of Apple and Costco Wholesale. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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