Receiving an inheritance, especially an unexpected one, might leave you feeling a little overwhelmed by the options. Ideally, the money should bring you closer to financial independence, but many heirs don't know how to handle a windfall and end up no better off than they were before.
The first priority is to develop a strategy. "Most people run through an inheritance in two years or less," says Jason Flurry, president of Legacy Partners Financial Group in Woodstock, Ga. In his experience, the first mistake people make is they "blow the money on stuff for themselves." The second mistake is that they choose bad investments because they consider the inheritance to be found money and consequently take on too much risk.
A dollar is still a dollar, whether you or your benefactor earned it. So before rushing out to buy the big-screen television or invest in the latest hot stock, develop a game plan.
Flurry suggests starting with an inventory of your financial life. Take a close look to determine if you have adequate insurance, are carrying too much high-interest debt, are on track for retirement and have an emergency fund that will cover you for at least six months or a year. "Make sure your foundation issues are in place," he says.
Everyone's financial game plan will look different depending on age, level of debt, whether they are supporting children or parents, and how they want to live in retirement. The point is to gain financial stability in the pressing issues and put the remainder toward reaching your goals. Some of the possibilities include the following.
Paying off high-interest debt, such as credit cards. Whether you pay off a lower-interest mortgage that has some tax deductibility will depend on your personal feelings about carrying a mortgage into retirement and your net worth outside of the value of your home. If you still need to beef up your retirement fund, put the money there first; ditto for an emergency fund.
Contribute to a college fund. Those who want to contribute to their children's education can add money to the college fund, but be sure to research how it may impact potential financial aid resources, either from the federal government or from the educational institution.
Fund your retirement. If you're close to retirement, focus on income, Flurry says. "Put the money into areas that are reasonably stable as sort of an all-weather approach." Just don't play it so safe that your investments can't keep up with inflation.
Remember that there's nothing wrong with buying a luxury item for yourself with some of the money, Flurry says, but the reward will be sweeter if you've figured out your long-range financial plan first.
Don't act rashly
When someone inherits, Flurry says, "The temptation is to feel like you have to do something, but you really don't. Sit down and dream a little, then back into the numbers and ask, 'How can we do this with the least amount of risk?'" Acting too hastily can lead to trouble. Paying off your mortgage without thinking about future income in your old age, for example, could leave you living debt-free but in poverty. "If your house is paid for but you run through everything else, you can't use shingles to pay for groceries," Flurry says. "Then what do you do? You don't want to be in that situation."
If you've inherited a traditional IRA, for example, research the options available before making changes. If you're not a spouse, you can't roll the inherited IRA into your own. Nonspouses are required to take taxable minimum distributions every year based on life expectancy. Instead of treating the distribution as an annual windfall to be spent, make a plan to integrate it into your long-term strategy.
Dial down risk
Constructing a portfolio that generates passive income is the slow-and-steady approach that will lead to financial independence, but it's a step most people miss, according to Flurry.
He says creating a portfolio that throws off a steady stream of income is not as sexy as finding the next big investment, but it's a safer long-term strategy. To achieve stability and income growth, you'll need to mix together stocks and fixed-income investments, but don't speculate by sinking it all into volatile equities. "It's kind of a 'get rich slow' plan, but it works," Flurry says. "So many people take unnecessary risks."
On the other hand, depending on your age when you inherit, you might not necessarily keep the inherited investment portfolio as is because it may be too conservative to provide the growth that will get you to your financial goals in 20 years. The point is to make the money work for you without unnecessary risk.
Hire an expert
Consulting a financial planner, investment professional or tax accountant will help you develop a plan if you don't have one or maximize your current plan. If you know you'll inherit, you can begin planning ahead of time, but if the inheritance comes as a surprise, a professional can provide a better idea of your options.
"People will come out of the woodwork," Flurry says, with banks and insurance companies trying to sell products. "There's nothing wrong with that," he adds, but don't rely on sales representatives without first getting an objective opinion on your entire financial picture and a thorough understanding of your goals.
Complicated assets, such as a family business or an asset you've inherited with others such as a home, will probably require a professional to help sort out the options.
Though a master plan will help you keep and grow the assets you've inherited, it doesn't have to be perfect or static. It can and should change over time. "The average plan is better than no plan," says Flurry. "Stick to your goals, and that will provide your true north."