Nearly two months of labor unrest that started in South Africa's platinum mines have spread across the sector and appear to be spilling into other parts of the economy such as manufacturing.
The SATAWU transport union said on Friday it was pushing for rail and ports workers to join a two-week strike by 20,000 truckers.
Here is a summary of the worst-hit companies:
ANGLO AMERICAN PLATINUM (AMPLATS)
Amplats' four Rustenburg mines have been shut since September 12 when the world's largest platinum producer closed its doors to protect employees from escalating violence by wildcat strikers.
The strikes have now spread to three mines 100 km further north. The seven Amplats plants account for a quarter of global supply of the precious metal. Forty-eight people have now been killed in the weeks of unrest.
Fewer than 20 percent of the company's 21,000 employees have been reporting for work since then, despite threats of the sack.
The bullion producer's Kopanang mine, southwest of Johannesburg, reported a stay-away on September 21. Five days later it said all its South African operations were at a standstill.
The company warned that the prolonged strike by 24,000 miners could lead to the closure of less-profitable shafts.
Two mines run by the world's fourth largest bullion producer have been halted by illegal strikes. Starting at its KDC operations near Carletonville west of Johannesburg on September 10, the protests bubbled over to its Beatrix mine in the Free State province two weeks later.
The two operations employ 24,000 miners.
Labor strife has also hit the following companies:
- Shell in South Africa declared force majeure on fuel deliveries around Johannesburg because of a strike truckers.
- Toyota Motor Corp had to shut its car factory in Durban because of an illegal pay strike.
- Harmony Gold's Kusasalethu mine near Carletonville (started October 3)
- Kumba Iron Ore, one of the world's top 10 producers, said it had suspended production at its huge Sishen mine after striking employees blocked access to the pit. (Started Oct 3)
- Gold One's Ezulwini Mining Company (started October 2)
- Petra Diamonds' Kimberley Underground operations in the Northern Cape (started October 2)
- Atlatsa Resources Corporation's joint venture with Amplats at Bokoni Platinum Mine in Limpopo province (started October 1)
- Samancor West Chrome Mines near Rustenburg (started with a sit-in on September 28)
- Village Main Reef's Blyvooruitzicht mine near Carletonville (started September 28)
(Compiled by Sherilee Lakmidas and Ed Stoddard; Additional writing by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit; Editing by Ed Cropley)